Bacteria living in and on our bodies are an important part in maintaining our health, and disruptions in the normal human-associated microbiota are believed to contribute to many diseases. Metagenomics, a new biological discipline, has made it possible to extract and sequence the DNA of the many microbes living within us. The data arising from metagenomic studies poses substantial computational challenges. During my talk I will outline recent research in my lab aimed at developing new computational tools for analyzing microbial mixtures, as well as some of the biological discoveries made possible by these tools. I will conclude with future opportunities for computational research in this rapidly evolving field.